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ELISA Assay Sandwich, Competitive: JoVE Guide

Marketing Dept., | 9 min read
Marketing Dept., | 9 min read

What is an ELISA Assay: Indirect Sandwich, Competitive?

ELISA, short for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, utilizes enzyme-linked reactions and immune sorption. The term "Enzyme-Linked" signifies the use of enzymes to attach to specific molecules, aiding in their detection. Meanwhile, "Immunosorbent" refers to the solid surface's ability to absorb immune system components, aiding in capturing target molecules. 

  1. Indirect Sandwich ELISA definition: In an indirect sandwich ELISA, the target molecule (antigen) is captured between two antibodies. The first antibody binds to the antigen, and then a second enzyme-linked antibody binds to the first antibody, creating a "sandwich" structure. This second antibody is typically labeled with an enzyme that produces a detectable signal. 

  2. Competitive ELISA definition:In a competitive ELISA, the sample antigen competes with a labeled antigen (often conjugated to an enzyme) for binding sites on an antibody coated surface. The amount of labeled antigen that binds to the antibody is inversely proportional to the amount of sample antigen present in the sample. Thus, the signal generated is inversely related to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample.
  • Examples of the ELISA Assay Applications

    • Specific examples of ELISA assay applications include diagnosing conditions such as HIV infection, where ELISA is used to detect antibodies against the HIV virus, or in allergy testing, where it measures the levels of allergen-specific IgE in a patient's blood. Additionally, the ELISA assay is employed in vaccine development to assess the immunogenicity of administered antigens.

 

  • How to Perform an ELISA Assay?

The assay relies on antibodies and color-changing enzyme reactions to provide quantitative results. It is commonly used in both research and clinical settings for diagnosing conditions and studying immune responses.

1.Sandwich ELISA Experiment

  • In the sandwich ELISA assay experiment, a capture antibody is first attached to the well of a microplate. After adding the sample, the target antigen binds to the capture antibody. Then, a secondary antibody, which is enzyme-linked and specific to the antigen, is added, forming a 'sandwich' with the antigen in the middle. Substrate is then added, which reacts with the enzyme to produce a detectable signal. This format is highly specific and sensitive, making it ideal for detecting low-abundance targets in complex mixtures.
  • elissa assay

2.Competitive ELISA Experiment:

In a competitive ELISA, the sample antigen competes with a labeled antigen (often conjugated to an enzyme) for binding sites on an antibody coated surface. The amount of labeled antigen that binds to the antibody is inversely proportional to the amount of sample antigen present in the sample. Thus, the signal generated is inversely related to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample.

  • How to learn more about ELISA Assays with JoVE?

  • To effectively learn how to perform the ELISA assay, visit JoVE’s Biochemistry section at JoVE's Biochemistry Section. JoVE offers detailed video demonstrations and protocols that walk you through the ELISA procedure step-by-step. These resources are ideal for both beginners and experienced researchers looking to refine their technique or troubleshoot specific issues in ELISA assays. The visual aids and expert explanations will ensure that you gain a robust understanding of how to conduct the ELISA assay effectively and accurately.

 

  • The benefits of the ELISA assay include its high specificity and sensitivity, as well as its ability to be easily quantified and automated for handling large numbers of samples quickly and efficiently. The quantitative results obtained from ELISA assays allow for comparative analysis between different samples, providing critical data in clinical and laboratory settings.

 

Conclusion

ELISA assays offer rapid and accurate results, making them widely utilized in clinical laboratories and research settings. They play a crucial role in diagnosing various diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Furthermore, ELISA assays are adaptable to high-throughput screening, facilitating large-scale studies and drug development efforts.

Overall, ELISA remains a cornerstone technique in biomedical science, contributing significantly to advancements in healthcare and scientific understanding. 

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